Ion heating in collisionless shocks is non-adiabatic and efficient. The amount of heating and the downstream distributions depend on the shock parameters and on the incident ion distribution. The number of reflected ions and their distribution depend on the detailed shape of the tail of the distribution. In supercritical shocks the reflected ion contribution is significant. Kappa distributed ions are heated more strongly and have a larger fraction of reflected ions than Maxwellian distributed ions with the same upstream temperature and the same shock parameters. For kappa distributions the phase space dips are shallower.
Gedalin, M. (SHARP) and Ganushkina, N. (SHARP) (2022). Different heating of Maxwellian and kappa distributions at shocks. Journal of Plasma Physics, 88(5), doi: 10.1017/S0022377822000824
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